||NIST made the first programmable 1-volt standard, which had 32,768 junctions on a 1-centimeter square chip. This was the first demonstration of the new normal-metal junction barrier technology that produced large numbers of junctions with uniform electrical characteristics, even though each junction is only 2 micrometers by 2 micrometers in size. Programmable arrays are ideal for automated measurement systems. The stability of the programmable steps enabled the first detailed characterization of voltmeters.
*PML, volt, standard, programmable, array, junction
See also http://www.nist.gov/pml/history-volt/superconductivity_1990s.cfm.